Discomfort or pain that arises when urine is being passed. Painful urination is known medically as dysuria. The pain is unusually described as burning sensation; sometimes preceded by problems in starting urine flow. Pain after flow has ceased, with a powerful desire to continue, is called strangury.
The most widespread cause if strangury, particularly in women, is cystitis (inflammation of the bladder). Other causes include a bladder tumour, urethritis (inflammation of the urethra), and bladder stones. In males, possible causes include balanitis (inflammation of the head of the penis) and prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate gland). Vaginal candidiasis (thrush) can also be a cause in women.
Strangury is often caused by spasm of an inflamed bladder wall, but it may be due to bladder stones. Mild discomfort when passing urine can be caused by highly concentrated urine.
Dysuria can be investigated by means of a physical examination, urinalysis, cystoscopy, or intravenous urography. Treatment is of the cause.